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Neutron Stars/X-ray Binaries
X-ray Astronomy Field Guide
Neutron Stars/X-ray Binaries
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Neutron Stars/X-ray Binaries
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Neutron Stars/X-ray Binaries
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1. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory Celebrates 15th Anniversary
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only To celebrate the 15th anniversary of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have released four new images of supernova remnants. These show Chandra's ability to study the remains of supernova explosions, using images that are the sharpest available in X-ray astronomy. The images of the Tycho and G292.0+1.8 supernova remnants show how Chandra can trace the expanding debris of an exploded star. The images show shock waves, similar to sonic booms from a supersonic plane, that travel through space at speeds of millions of miles per hour. The images of the Crab Nebula and 3C58 show the effects of very dense, rapidly spinning neutron stars created when a massive star explodes. These neutron stars can create clouds of high-energy particles that glow brightly in X-rays. The image for G292 shows oxygen (yellow and orange), and other elements such as magnesium (green) and silicon and sulfur (blue) that were forged in the star before it exploded. For the other images, the lower energy X-rays are shown in red and green and the highest energy X-rays are shown in blue.
[Runtime: 01:42]
(NASA/CXC/April Jubett)

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2. A Tour of The Big, Bad & Beautiful Universe with Chandra
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only In fifteen years of operation, the Chandra X-ray Observatory has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light.

Chandra has captured galaxy clusters - the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe - in the process of forming, and provided the best evidence yet that the cosmos is dominated by a mysterious substance called dark matter.

Chandra has observed gas circling near a black hole's event horizon. The atoms of this gas are doomed to destruction by the extreme gravity of the black hole.

Most of the elements necessary for life are forged inside stars and blasted into interstellar space by supernovas. Chandra has tracked these elements with unprecedented accuracy.

Young stars are crackling with X-ray flares and other energetic radiation. By monitoring clusters of young stars, Chandra can give us a sense of what our young Sun was like when life was evolving on Earth.

Chandra: Taking us on a unique voyage into the big, bad and beautiful universe.
[Runtime: 02:01]
(NASA/CXC. Produced by A.Hobart (CXC), Directed by K.Arcand (CXC), Script by W.Tucker (CXC), Narration by Chris Camilleri;)

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3. The Space Olympics
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Nothing in space stays still. In fact, most stars are like long-distance marathon runners, as they are constantly moving in space throughout their lifetimes. However, astronomers have recently spotted a star (shown in this new space photo as a green smudge in the box) that is better at sprint running.

To work out the speed of this star, astronomers had to figure out how far it has travelled since it started its race and how long this took. Astronomers think the star began its race at the center of the purple cloud of gas and dust in the photo. That's because this is a special type of star that rotates very quickly, which is called a pulsar. And the pulsar was ejected during the explosion that created the cloud of gas and dust.

Based on their estimates, the astronomers think the pulsar is moving at an incredible speed of between 5 million and 7 million miles per hour! This could make it the fastest moving pulsar ever known! But there is a competitor for the title, as another pulsar has previously been estimated to be moving between 3 and 6 million miles per hour.

It's a pity astronomers can't enter these two stars into a 'Space Olympics' to determine which one is the fastest sprinter. Instead, they need to work it out the hard way and fine-tune their results.
[Runtime: 01:48]
(NASA/CXC/April Jubett)

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4. Tour of IGR J11014-6103
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Astronomers have found a remarkable object in our Milky Way galaxy. This object is a pulsar, the spinning dense core that remains after a massive star has exploded and collapsed. When this pulsar was created, something interesting happened because this pulsar is racing away from the supernova remnant where it was born at a speed between 2.5 million and 5 million miles per hour. This supersonic pace makes this pulsar - called IGR J1104-6103 -- one of the fastest moving pulsars ever observed. And what's more is that this runaway pulsar is leaving behind an extraordinary tail behind it as it goes. This tail is about 37 light years in length, making it the longest X-ray jet ever seen from an object in the Milky Way galaxy. New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have been combined with radio data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to provide astronomers with a more complete picture of what's happening in this system. For example, these data show that the tail has a distinct corkscrew shape. This suggests that the pulsar is wobbling like a top as it spins. IGR J1104-6103 is located about 60 light years away from the center of the supernova remnant SNR MSH 11-61A, which is where astronomers think the pulsar was originally created. By examining the details of the pulsar, its jet, and the supernova remnant, astronomers are piecing together the story of this exceptional object in our Galaxy.
[Runtime: 01:54]
(NASA/CXC/A. Hobart)

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5. A Flare for the Dramatic
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Never let it be said that stars don't have style: when a massive star comes to the end of its life it doesn't quietly burn out like a dying candle. Instead, it goes out with a bang, or rather an explosion that outshines almost everything else in the Universe! This explosion is called a supernova, and when this happens, the star is torn apart, throwing material into space. But something is left behind - a 'neutron star' - the remaining core of a massive star once it has exploded.

This picture might look like a jawbreaker that's been dipped in dental floss, but it actually shows an artist's impression of a very exotic type of neutron star called a "magnetar".

Magnetars are some of the most extreme objects known in the Universe. They are a very small and ultra-compact type of neutron star that erupt randomly with bursts of powerful high-energy flares. These stars were given their name because they are very strong magnets. You've probably played with magnets in school. Each magnets is surrounded by an invisible force field, called a "magnetic field".

Magnetars have notoriously strong magnetic fields - the strongest in the entire Universe, in fact! Well, except for this one. This picture shows "SGR 0418", a magnetar that doesn't fit the mould. It has a much weaker magnetic field on its surface than any other star of its kind. What makes this really puzzling is that it raises the question: where does the energy come from to power its dramatic high-energy flares? It is thought to come from the strong magnetic field. But this theory doesn't work for SGR 0418! SGR 0418 appears to be an oddity amongst oddities! Astronomers are puzzled but think that there is a much stronger magnetic field underneath the surface of SGR 0418.
[Runtime: 02:25]
(NASA/CXC/April Jubett)

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6. The Mysterious Afterlife of Stellar
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Neutron stars are the ultra-dense cores left behind after a massive star reaches the end of its life and explodes. The star's outer layers are blasted away in the explosion, but material at the centre of the star collapses in on itself. This forming a tightly packed ball of material and what we end up with is the densest (meaning 'most tightly packed') object known in the entire Universe outside of a black hole: a neutron star!

This new space picture shows a group of stars called a globular cluster. These are some of the oldest objects in space - almost as old as the Universe itself! This means many of the stars within have already lived their lives. The most massive have long since exploded, leaving behind several neutron stars.

Using a neutron star within this cluster, along with several others, astronomers have worked out the relationship between the stars' mass (how much material they have) and how big they are.

The new data shows that an average neutron star, with the same mass as around one and a half of our Sun's, would be around 12 km across. That's about the size of a town! With all this material packed down into such a small space, neutron stars are unbelievably dense objects. The pressure at their centers is over ten trillion trillion times the pressure required to form diamonds inside the Earth.
[Runtime: 01:58]
(NASA/CXC/April Jubett)

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7. Did Somebody Call the Ghostbusters?
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Millions of people around the world believe in ghosts, many of them even claim to have seen one. Well, now you can count yourself among them! This spooky new image shows a massive star in its afterlife. You could say it's a 'ghost star'.

A large star comes to the end of its life when it runs out of fuel. At this point the star's outer layers are blown away in a powerful explosion, and the core collapses in on itself. While the cast off outer layers can create some fascinating and colorful patterns, it's at the core that things get really interesting. This haunting space picture shows the dense, leftover core of a massive star after it has gone through its dramatic end-of-life explosion.

While the outer layers are blown away, the core collapses in on itself. Enough material to make a Sun like ours (and then some!) is squashed into an area much smaller than an average city! The core then begins its afterlife as a new type of star.

In this picture the core has been reborn as a 'pulsar'. This is a star that spins around extremely quickly - turning even faster than a helicopter rotor! As it whips round, the pulsars spews out jets of material, can you see one stretching upwards in this picture?
[Runtime: 01:47]
(NASA/CXC/April Jubett)

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8. Tour of SGR 0418+5729
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only A magnetar is a type of neutron star that occasionally generates bursts of X-rays. They usually have a very strong magnetic field on their surface, ten to a thousand times stronger than for an average neutron star. Now, astronomers have spotted a magnetar, called SGR 0418, with a much lower magnetic field on its surface. Data from Chandra and several other X-ray observatories was used to make this measurement. The magnetar is seen as the pink source in the middle of this image combining Chandra data with optical and infrared data. SGR 0418 is located in our galaxy about 6,500 light years from Earth. In this artist's impression we see a close-up view of SGR 0418, with a weak magnetic field on the surface and a much stronger magnetic field in the interior. These results suggest that magnetars might be much more common than previously thought. They also tell us about the massive stars and supernova explosions that create magnetars.
[Runtime: 01:28]
(NASA/CXC/J. DePasquale)

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9. Tour of 47 Tucanae
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Neutron stars are the ultra-dense cores that are often left behind after massive stars run out of fuel and collapse. In fact, these compact objects, which are less than 10 miles in diameter, contain the densest matter known in the Universe outside of a black hole. New results from Chandra and other X-ray telescopes are giving scientists information about important properties of neutron stars. By studying eight neutron stars, a group of researchers have come up with the one of the most reliable determinations yet of the relation between the radius of a neutron star and its mass. They looked at the neutron stars in double, or binary, systems where they are in orbit with stars like our Sun. One of these systems is known as X7 and is found in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Because the mass and radius of a neutron star is directly related to interactions between the particles in the interior of the star, the latest results give scientists new information about the inner workings of neutron stars.
[Runtime: 01:12]
(NASA/CXC/A. Hobart)

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10. Tour of Vela Pulsar
QuicktimeMPEG Audio Only Unlike with some Hollywood films, a sequel of a movie from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is better than the first. The star of this Chandra movie is the Vela pulsar, a neutron star that was formed when a massive star collapsed. The Vela pulsar is about 1,000 light years from Earth, spans about 12 miles in diameter, and makes a complete rotation in 89 milliseconds, which is faster than a helicopter rotor. As the pulsar whips around, it spews out a jet of charged particles that race out along the pulsar's rotation axis at about 70% the speed of light. The new Chandra data, which were obtained from June to September 2010, suggest that the jet may be slowly wobbling, or precessing, as it spins. The first Chandra movie of Vela came out in 2003, but its shorter and unevenly spaced exposures did not provide clear evidence for precession of the pulsar. If the Vela saga becomes a trilogy, maybe more secrets of this exotic object will be revealed.
[Runtime: 01.09]
(NASA/CXC/A. Hobart)

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