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Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
X-ray Astronomy Field Guide
Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Questions and Answers
Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Chandra Images
Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Animations & Video: Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Page 123456
Click for high-resolution animation
1. Animation of the Effects of Dark Energy
QuicktimeMPEG This animation shows the expansion history of the Universe by modeling the Universe as a two-dimensional grid of galaxies. The Big Bang, shown as a flash of light, is immediately followed by rapid expansion of the Universe. This expansion then slows down because of the gravitational attraction of the matter in the Universe. As the Universe expands, the repulsive effects of dark energy become important, causing the expansion to accelerate. For clarity, the size of the deceleration and acceleration has been exaggerated.
[Runtime: 0:10]
View Stills
(NASA/STScI/G. Bacon)

Related Chandra Images:

Click for high-resolution animation
2. Galaxy Cluster Animation
QuicktimeMPEG This animation shows a galaxy cluster, the largest gravitationally-bound objects in the Universe. Individual galaxies are shown in white and yellow, and the intergalactic gas is shown in red. Galaxy clusters contain as much mass as a million billion suns. The strong gravitational pull of this matter squeezes the gas and heats it to about 100 million degrees, making it only detectable in X-rays. Chandra found direct evidence for cosmic acceleration and dark energy, based on distance measurements to a sample of galaxy clusters.
[Runtime: 0:26]
View Stills
(NASA/CXC/A.Hobart)

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3. Chandra Image & Artist Illustration of MS 0735.6+7421
QuicktimeMPEG This sequence shows three frames: the Chandra X-ray image of the galaxy cluster MS 0735, a labeled illustration of the system, then a return to the Chandra image. The two giant cavities (dark red regions) found in the X-ray emitting, hot gas (bright red) in the galaxy cluster are evidence for the massive eruption. A supermassive black hole at the center of the bright X-ray emission caused the eruption.
[Runtime: 0:20]
(X-ray image: NASA/CXC/Ohio U./B.McNamara et al.; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)

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4. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster
QuicktimeMPEG This sequence compares the physical size of the cavities found in MS 0735.6+7421 and the Perseus cluster, another well-known galaxy cluster with cavities. These two clusters are at very different distances -- Perseus is about 250 million light years away and MS 0735 is almost three billion light years away. To make a direct size comparison, the Perseus cluster is shrunk to simulate its appearance at the farther distance of MS 0735. From this comparison, it is obvious that the cavities in MS 0735 are much larger than those found in Perseus.
[Runtime: 0:12]
(MS 0735: NASA/CXC/Ohio U./B.McNamara et al.; Perseus: NASA/CXC/IoA/A.Fabian et al.)

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Click for high-resolution animation
5. Animation of Eruption from Supermassive Black Hole
QuicktimeMPEG
*Broadcast Quality

This animation depicts an eruption caused by a supermassive black hole. Gas and dust (reddish-brown disk) are being pulled around by the enormous gravity of the supermassive black hole, which is buried in the center of a large elliptical galaxy. The animation then zooms out to show the full view of the galaxy, which is surrounded by hot gas (red) that pervades the galaxy cluster. White jets, fueled from material falling onto the black hole, then erupt from the black hole and push gas backwards to create the dark cavities in the cluster gas.
[Runtime: 0:17]
View Stills
(NASA/CXC/A.Hobart)

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6. Chandra X-ray Images of Six Galaxy Clusters
QuicktimeMPEG A critically important number that sets the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances and thus allows astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. These images show six of the 38 galaxy clusters that scientists observed with Chandra.
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(NASA/CXC/MSFC/M.Bonamente et al.)

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Click for high-resolution animation
7. Galaxy Cluster in Perspective
QuicktimeMPEG This motion graphic begins with a close-up of one of the galaxies, a spiral galaxy approximately the same size as the Milky Way, within the galaxy cluster known as 1E 0657-56. The view then pulls out to show over a thousand galaxies in this cluster. These immense objects are among the largest structures in the Universe.
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(NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.)

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Click for high-resolution animation
8. Animation of Cluster Collision
QuicktimeMPEG This animation shows an artist's representation of the huge collision in the bullet cluster. Hot gas, containing most of the normal matter in the cluster, is shown in red and dark matter is in blue. During the collision the hot gas in each cluster is slowed and distorted by a drag force, similar to air resistance. A bullet-shaped cloud of gas forms in one of the clusters. In contrast, the dark matter is not slowed by the impact, because it does not interact directly with itself or the gas except through gravity, and separates from the normal matter. The animation ends by dissolving into an image showing the hot gas seen with Chandra (pink) and the cluster mass as inferred by gravitational lensing (blue), which is mostly dark matter.
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View Stills
(NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)

Related Chandra Images:

Click for high-resolution animation
9. Sequence of "Bullet Cluster" Images
QuicktimeMPEG This is a sequence of images of the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56, also known as the bullet cluster. The optical image from the Magellan and the Hubble Space Telescope shows galaxies in orange and white. Hot gas, which contains the bulk of the normal matter in the cluster, is shown by the Chandra X-ray image (pink). Gravitational lensing, the distortion of background images by mass in the cluster, reveals the mass of the cluster is dominated by dark matter (blue). This is the first clear separation between normal and dark matter.
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(X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al. Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al. Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.)

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